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搖臂鉆床的電氣控制PLC改造,搖臂鉆床PLC控制原理

2020-07-27 15:23來源:未知瀏覽:

 

搖臂電路設計和搖臂鉆床說明

依據繼電控制原理,搖臂鉆床由多電機拖動。主軸電動機M1,搖臂升降電動機M2,液壓泵電動機M3和冷卻泵電動機M4,分析它的電氣控制原理,搖臂鉆床輸入元件有11個,按鈕6個,哏位開關有5個;輸出元件有9個,接觸器線圏5個,電磁閥1個,信號燈3個。繼電器控制電路的熱繼電器,不用作為輸入的元件,將觸點串接到接觸器線圈回路中很方便,能夠節省輸出點。

搖臂鉆床PLC端口分配表

 

PLC端口分配表

依據I/O分配,制作I/O端的子接線圖3子接線圖的輸入側用直流24V,輸出側用交流220V,這樣直接驅動交流接觸器、電磁閥會更加方便。但是主令電器常閉觸頭都是用常開觸點為輸入,令編程簡單,熱繼電器常閉觸點串聯在接觸器線圈回路用作過載保護,把接觸器常閉觸點串接進線圈回路,進行互鎖保護可以增加系統可靠性,PLC輸入輸出都采用光電隔離,增強了抗干擾能力。

搖臂鉆床PLC?I/O端子接線圖

搖臂鉆床程序設計與說明

依據搖臂鉆床控制要求以及繼電器-接觸器控制邏輯,結合PLC端口分配,改造PLC控制程序。

搖臂鉆床PLC梯形圖

 

搖臂鉆床PLC梯形圖指令表
1 LD X2 20 ANI X5 41 ANI Y2
2 OR Y1 21 ANI X6 42 OUT Y3
3 ANI XI 22 OUT Y6 43 LD T1
4 OUT YI 23 LD R1 44 OR Y5
5 LD X3 24 OR R2 45 ANI R1
6 ANI X21 25 MPS   46 LD X6
7 LD X4 26 ANI Y5 47 ANI R1
8 ANI A25 27 OUT R2 48 ORB  
9 ORB   28 MPP   49 ANI Y4
10 OUT R1 29 ANI R1 50 OUT Y5
11 LD R1 30 OUT T.MX1K30 51 LD X24
12 ANI X22 33 LD R1 52 OUT Y21
13 OR X5 34 AND X22 53 INV  
14 ANI Y5 35 MPS   54 OUT Y22
15 OUT Y4 36 ANI X4 55 LD Yl
16 LD R1 37 ANI Y3 56 OUT Y23
17 LD Y6 38 OUT Y2 57 END  
18 ANI X23 39 MPP        
19 ORB   40 ANI X3      

 

搖臂鉆床PLC控制原理

(1)主軸電機起停

按下啟動按鈕SB2(非自鎖),輸入點X2合上,輸出點Y1得電后自鎖,接觸器KM1線圏得電,HL3指示燈亮,主軸電動機Ml得電工作。按下停止按鈕SB1(非自鎖),輸入點XI合上,輸出點Y1斷電,對應的接觸器KM1失電,線圈松開,主軸電動機Ml停止運轉,指示燈HL3滅。

(2)搖臂升降控制

松開搖臂運動過程:按下上升按鈕SB3(非自鎖),輸入點X3合上(或按下下降按鈕SB4(非自鎖),輸入點X4合上),輔助繼電器R1通電,其輔助常開觸點接通,輸出點Y4和輸出點Y6接通,輔助繼電器R2接通,接觸器KM4通電,線圈合上,液壓泵電動機M3正向運行,發出正向壓力油,隨后電磁閥YV通電,線圈合上,搖臂松開。

搖臂上升(下降)運動過程:搖臂上升(或下降)松開動作完成后碰壓行程開關SQ2,其對應輸入常閉觸點X22斷開,輸出點Y4斷開,接觸器KM4通電,線圈合上,液壓泵電動機M3斷電停止工作,搖臂始終保持著松開的狀態;同時常開觸點對應的輸入點X22閉合,輸出點Y2(或Y3)接通,接觸器KM2(或KM3)通電,線圈合上,搖臂升降電動機M2正方向運行(下降為反反向運行),直接拖動搖臂上升(或下降)。

夾緊搖臂的運動過程:搖臂上升(或下降)到所要到達位置時,放開按鈕SB3(或SB4),相應輸入點斷開,輔助繼電器R1不得電,輸出點Y2(或Y3)失電,接觸器KM2(或KM3)通電,線圈合上,搖臂升降電動機M2失電工作停止,相應的搖臂升降不再動作;同時接通定時器T1,定時器在通電3秒的延時后動作,定時器常開觸點閉合,輸入點Y5合上,接觸器KM5通電,線圈合上。液壓泵電動機M3反方向運行,發出反方向壓力油,使搖臂夾緊。夾緊動作完成后壓下行程開關SQ3,行程開關對應的輸入點X23松開,輸入點Y5、Y6失電,接觸器KM5和電磁閥YV因線圈釋放而使M3停轉。

(3)松開與夾緊主軸箱和立柱的控制

合上主軸箱松開按鈕SB5,輸入點X5接通,輸出點Y4合上,接觸器KM4得電,線圈吸合,液壓泵電動機M3正向運行,電磁閥YV沒有工作,松開主軸箱和立柱。沒有壓到行程開關SQ4,常閉觸點合上,指示燈HL1得電發亮,完成了整個主軸箱和立柱的松開。

合上主軸箱夾緊按鈕SB6,輸入點X6合上,輸出點Y5接通,相應的接觸器KM5得電,線圈吸合,液壓泵電動機M3反向運行,電磁閥YV仍不通電,主軸箱和立柱夾緊=同時行程開關SQ4受壓,相應的常閉點斷開,指示燈HL1失電,常開觸點對應的輸出點合上,指示燈HL2亮,完成了整個主軸箱和立柱的夾緊。

 

 

 

Rocker circuit design and radial drilling machine description

According to the relay control principle, the radial drilling machine is driven by multiple motors. The main shaft motor M1, rocker arm lifting motor m2, hydraulic pump motor m3 and cooling pump motor M4 are analyzed. According to the electrical control principle, there are 11 input elements, 6 buttons and 5 switch switches; 9 output components, 5 contactor coils, 1 solenoid valve and 3 signal lights. The thermal relay of the relay control circuit is not used as an input element. It is convenient to connect the contact points in series with the contactor coil circuit, which can save the output points.

According to the I / O distribution, the I / O terminal sub wiring diagram is made. The input side of the 3 sub wiring diagram uses DC 24 V, and the output side uses AC 220 V, so it is more convenient to directly drive AC contactor and solenoid valve. However, the normally closed contacts of main electrical appliances are all input with normally open contacts, which makes programming simple. The normally closed contacts of thermal relays are connected in series in the coil circuit of contactors for overload protection. The normally closed contacts of contactors are connected in series into the coil circuit for interlocking protection, which can increase the system reliability. The input and output of PLC adopt photoelectric isolation, which enhances the anti-interference ability.

Program design and description of radial drilling machine

According to the control requirements of radial drilling machine and the control logic of relay contactor, combined with the port distribution of PLC, the PLC control program is reformed.

PLC control principle of radial drilling machine

(1) Starting and stopping of spindle motor

Press start button SB2 (non self-locking), input point X2 is closed, output point Y1 is powered on, coil of contactor KM1 is powered on, Hl3 indicator light is on, and spindle motor ml is powered on. Press stop button SB1 (non self-locking), input point Xi is closed, output point Y1 is powered off, corresponding contactor KM1 loses power, coil is released, spindle motor ml stops running, and indicator light Hl3 is off.

(2) Rocker arm lifting control

Release rocker arm movement process: press up button Sb3 (non self-locking), input point X3 is closed (or press down button Sb4 (non self-locking), input point X4 is closed), auxiliary relay R1 is energized, its auxiliary normally open contact is connected, output point Y4 and output point y6 are connected, auxiliary relay R2 is connected, contactor km4 is powered on, and coil is closed, The hydraulic pump motor m3 runs forward and sends out positive pressure oil. Then the solenoid valve YV is energized, the coil is closed, and the rocker arm is released.

Rocker arm up (down) movement process: after the rocker arm up (or down) release action is completed, press travel switch SQ2, its corresponding input normally closed contact X22 is disconnected, output point Y4 is disconnected, contactor km4 is powered on, coil is closed, hydraulic pump motor m3 is cut off and rocker arm is always in loose state; at the same time, input point X22 corresponding to normally open contact is closed, and output point Y2 (or Y3) is connected, When the contactor km2 (or KM3) is electrified, the coil is closed, and the rocker arm lifting motor M2 runs in the positive direction (descending is reverse operation), and the rocker arm is directly dragged up (or down).

The movement process of clamping rocker arm: when the rocker arm rises (or descends) to the desired position, release the button Sb3 (or Sb4), the corresponding input point is disconnected, the auxiliary relay R1 is not electrified, the output point Y2 (or Y3) is de energized, the contactor km2 (or KM3) is powered on, the coil is closed, the rocker arm lifting motor M2 is powered off, and the corresponding rocker arm lifting is no longer operating; At the same time, turn on the timer T1, and the timer will act after 3 seconds of power on. The normally open contact of the timer will be closed, the input point Y5 will be closed, the contactor km5 will be powered on and the coil will be closed. Hydraulic pump motor m3 runs in the opposite direction and sends out pressure oil in the opposite direction to clamp the rocker arm. After the clamping action is completed, press down the travel switch SQ3, the corresponding input point x23 of the travel switch is released, the input points Y5 and y6 lose power, and the contactor km5 and solenoid valve YV stop m3 due to the coil release.

(3) Control of loosening and clamping headstock and column

Close the spindle box release button sb5, input point X5 is connected, output point Y4 is closed, contactor km4 is powered on, coil is closed, hydraulic pump motor m3 is running forward, and solenoid valve YV is not working. Loosen headstock and column. When the travel switch sq4 is not pressed, the normally closed contact is closed, the indicator light HL1 is powered on and the whole headstock and column are released.

Close the spindle box clamping button sb6, the input point X6 is closed, the output point Y5 is connected, the corresponding contactor km5 is powered on, the coil is closed, the hydraulic pump motor m3 is in reverse operation, the solenoid valve YV is still not powered, the headstock and column clamping = at the same time, the travel switch sq4 is pressed, and the corresponding normally closed point is disconnected, When the indicator light HL1 loses power, the output point corresponding to the normally open contact is closed, and the indicator light HL2 is on, which completes the clamping of the whole headstock and the column.

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